Water is an essential element for all life on earth and is the subject of much debate on its consumption, governance, conflicts of use, access and management methods.
The world's water resources accessible to humans are limited: freshwater accounts for 2.8% of resources, 70% of which is stored in a solid state; the rest is found in groundwater or underground basins and in lakes, rivers and natural reservoirs (i.e. 0.3% of available freshwater). In the end, man can only use less than 1% of the total volume of freshwater present on Earth, i.e. about 0.028% of the hydrosphere.
Resources are unevenly distributed between countries. One third of the world's population lacks access to safe water. 1.1 billion people in 80 countries do not have access to safe water, which hinders development. In Cambodia, Chad, Ethiopia, Mauritania, Afghanistan and Oman, less than 40% of the population has access to safe water. On the other hand, other countries such as Kuwait, Bahrain, the United Arab Emirates, Malta, Libya, Singapore, Jordan, Israel and Cyprus have extremely low resources.